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    Dinant - A Belgian town on the River Meuse

    Named after N1ccot6 GUALTIERI , physician to Cos1Mo III Grand Duke of Toscany and author of the 'Index Testarum Conchyliorum' , wherein this species was figured for the first time.

    Material studied: specimens AMNH, ANSP, BMNH, BPBM, CAS, DMNH, FMNH, HUJ, IRSNB, LACM, LMA, MCZ, MNHNP, NMP, NMW, OUM, RNHL, SAM, SMF, SMNS, UMZC, USNM, ZMA, ZSM, Coll.

    Diagnosis: Very large, moderately depressed cone-shaped shell with widely open umbilicus; whorls on upper side gemmate, somewhat inflated; two spiral grooves below suture midrib-area initially subequally divided, with upper midrib narrower ; deep, narrow groove at base of lower midrib.

    Subsutural rib whitish with pattern of brown blotches; midribs greyish-brown, basal field with dotted spiral lines; proxumbical rib white with brown blotches; umbilical crenae usually light-brown with one side of each nodule dark-brown, sometimes whitish with a few brown blotches.

    Arcliitecto11ica g11altierii n. Sculpture: Upper side: SSR distinctly separated; MR-area initially divided in UMR and LMR, some specimens later 1: 1; deep and narrow groove at base of LMR; nodules in MR-area usually gemmate, sometimes especially in small specimens from the central Pacific slanted like roof tiles; Periphery: PR strong, larger specimens with additional fine spiral rib between UPR and LPR; upper point of whorl attachment on upper part of LPR upper edge of LPR visible in suture up to ca.

    C : SSR initially white, with pattern of brown blotches ca. Rachidian short and pointed. Habitat: Sublittoral most depth records between 12 and m , live records from m, sandy and muddy substrates.

    Discussion: Architectonica gualtierii is a fairly common species. The midrib-area of its rather large shell has a much coarser sculpture than that of A.

    Compared to A. Geographical distribution of Architectonica gualtierii n. The brown umbilical crenae and much larger protoconch-size Fig. BIELER d: recognized an additional form in this complex, "Architectonica sp.

    At that time only juvenile shells were available for "sp. Extensive material including adult shells from several Hawaiian Islands has since been studied BPBM collections and no significant differences to Indo-West-Pacific A.

    Specimens from the central Pacific are frequently somewhat lighter-colored especially on the base and the midrib sculpture of early whorls often consists of scaly, rather than gemmate, nodules.

    This Hawaiian form, called "Archi- tectonica maxima" in the literature e. This species has been known to science for about years, since GUALTIERI published the first recognizable figure.

    Subsequent authors have used six different names for it australe, granulatum, laevigata, maximum, quadriceps and trochleare , none of which is taxonomically available for this form.

    The name Solarium quadriceps HINDS, , was used by several authors. This nominal species was based on a single specimen from the Bay of Panama.

    The type specimen of S. The name S. This resulted in unusual statements of A. Only two Architectonica species are known from the East Pacific, A.

    Based on the cited type locality in the East Pacific, subsequent authors e. All references to Architectonica maxima in the South African region BARNARD, b, ; KENsLEY, are based on A.

    It is noteworthy that BAYER'S treatment of "Solarium maximum" , ff. Architectonica taylori HANLEY, Pl. X [holotype].

    Taiwan 1 : 38 fig. Etymology: taylori [genitive singular case-ending]. Named after THOMAS LoMBE TAYLOR , British collector. Material studied: 92 specimens AMNH, ANSP, BMNH, CAS, DMNH, FLMNH, FMNH, HUJ, IRSNB, LACM, LMA, MCZ, MNHNP, NMP, NMW, OUM, RNHL, SMF, SMNS, UMZC, USNM, ZIMH, ZMA, ZSM, Coll.

    ALF , including holotype BMNH Diagnosis: Very large to extremely large, moderately depressed cone-shaped shell with widely open umbilicus; whorls on upper side gemmate, somewhat inflated; two spiral grooves below suture midrib-area subequally divided, with upper midrib narrower ; distinctly separated groove at base of lower midrib.

    Subsutural rib whitish with pattern of brown blotches starting after about whorls; upper midrib darker colored than subsutural rib, solid brown or dissolving into pattern of brown blotches; proxumbical rib whitish with pattern of brown blotches; umbilical crenae variegated with light- and dark- brown.

    SS, S6. Architectonica taylori HANLEY, Shape: moderately depressed cone-shaped , with who rls somewhat inflated especially on upper side ; umbilicus wide UD ca.

    Habitat: Sublittoral most depth records between 30 and 90 m , live records from SS m, sandy substrates.

    Discussion: A distinctive character of Architectonica taylori is the more or less completely brown-colored upper mid-rib, which is always darker than the subsutural rib see Pl.

    A and Fig. The upper midrib in A. Young specimens are similar to shells of A. Architectonica picta PHILIPPI, Pl.

    B; Figs. S "Cochlea turbinata pallide alba, Non Solarium maculatum REEVE, ]. Ill ''. Geographical distribution of Architectonica picta and A.

    SULPHUR, J: 51; 2: pl. II, 7: 10, pl. II, 7: 20, pl. Xia [holotype of S. Moluccas"; S. Material studied: specimens AMNH, ANSP, BMNH, CAS, DMNH, FLMNH, FMNH, HUJ, IRSNB, LACM, LMA, MCZ, MNHNP, NMP, NMW, OUM, RNHL, SMF, SMNS, UCMP, UMZC, USNM, ZIMH, ZMA, ZSM, Coll.

    ALF , including holotype of S. Diagnosis: Large to very large, moderately depressed to fairly high-spired cone-shaped shell with widely open umbilicus; whorls on upper side gemmate, somewhat inflated; two spiral grooves below suture midrib-area divided subequally, with upper midrib much narrower ; shallow depression at base of lower midrib.

    Subsutural rib white with pattern of brown blotches starting after about 3 whorls; upper midrib only initially brown, dissolving into grey-brown, then white-brown pattern; proxumbical rib and umbilical crenae white with few brown blotches.

    Protoconch diameter 0. Architectonica picta Purr1, Shape: moderately depressed to fa irly high-spired cone- shaped, w ith w horls somewhat inflated especially on upper side ; umbilicus wide UD ca.

    Coloration Pl. B : SSR initially white, with pattern of brown blotches ca. Habitat: Upper sublittoral most depth records between 1 and 50 m , live records from sandy substrates in shallow water.

    Discussion: The shell sculpture of Architectonica picta agrees with that of A. A and B. Architectonica picta is much thinner shelled, has a smaller protoconch than A.

    A useful character distinguishing between the three is the coloration of the umbilical crenae, which is pure-white in A.

    Type material of this species could not be located, but PHILIPP1's original description and subsequent figures , b: pl.

    Solarium tryoni MARSHALL, 18 87, was based on a faded, fairly high- spired specimen of this species see Fig. The validity of the name" Solarium maculatum LINK, " is questionable.

    FISCHER referred to figures in CHEMNITZ pl. The syntypic series of Solarium ftagile HINDS, [BMNH The specimen best matching the original description was selected as lectotype BIELER, l d: , pl.

    It is most likely a young specimen of Architectonica picta. Arcbitectonica modesta PHILIPPI, Pl. E; Figs. II, 7: 15, pl. S1BOGA Exped.

    Shell News, : 3, fig. Type locality: "Patria Etymology: modestus-a-um [adjective]; Latin: modest, discreet. Material studied: specimens AMNH, ANSP, BMNH, CAS, DMNH, FLMNH, FMNH, IRSNB, LACM, LMA, MCZ, MNHNP, NMP, NMW, OUM, RNHL, SMF, SMNS, UCMP, UMZC, USNM, ZMA, ZSM, Coll.

    Subsutural rib w hite, afte r about 5 w horls w ith pattern of roundish blotches; upper midrib nearly solid dark-brown; proxumbical rib and umbilical crenae pure white.

    Protoconch di ameter 1. Shape: moderately depressed to fa irly high-spired cone-shaped, with who rls somewhat inflated especially on upper side ; umbilicus wide UD ca.

    Sculpture: U pper side: SSR distinctly separated ; LMR wide r than UMR ca. Geographical distribution of Architectonica modesta.

    Habitat: Upper sublittoral most depth records between 1 and 85 m , live records from sandy substrates in shallow water. Discussion: The shell sculpture of Architectonica modesta is similar to those of A.

    This species is easily recognized by the combination of a white subsutural rib that often has a few regularly spaced brown blotches and a more or less solid-brown colored upper midrib see Pl.

    It is frequently confused with A. Type material could not be located, but PH1LIPP1's description and subsequent figure , pl. D; Figs.

    Paratype 1 from holotype lot. Etymology: arcanus-a-um [adjective]; Latin: secret, concealed; referring to its modest size and coloration compared to other members of its genus and to its previously hidden existence in the collections.

    Material studied: 35 specimens AMNH, ANSP, BMNH, DMNH, FMNH, MCZ, RNHL, SMF, USNM , including type material as listed above.

    Diagnosis: Large, fairly high-spired cone-shaped shell with moderately wide umbilicus; whorls on upper side gemmate, somewhat inflated; two spiral grooves below suture midrib- area divided subequally, with the upper midrib much narrower ; lower midrib always with some spiral sculpture and shallow depression at its base.

    Subsutural rib yellowish with brown blotches, blotches extending onto upper midrib after about 3 whorls; proxumbical rib and umbilical crenae pale tan, without color pattern; umbilical crenae forming lightest colored area of shell base.

    Shape: fairly high-spired cone-shaped, with whorls inflated especially on upper side ; umbilicus moderately wide UD ca.

    Sculpture: Upper side: SSR distinctly separated; LMR wider than UMR initially ca. XIII 3 views of paratype 2.

    Architectonica arcana n. D : SSR initially white, on later whorls pale tan with brown blotches per whorl, each ca. Habitat: Sublittoral available depth records between 67 and m.

    Discussion: Architectonica arcana, compared to other members of its genus, is a relatively small species in terms of shell size see Pl.

    The subequal division of the midrib-area and the corresponding brown blotches of subsutural rib and upper midrib are similar to the conditions in A.

    Architectonica laevigata see below appears to be the closest living relative, with which it shares widely spaced axial grooves, the fairly high-spired shell-shape and the purplish tint of the midrib-area.

    The wider umbilicus with finer umbilical crenae, and especially the overall olive-brown appearance compare Pl.

    D and F , allow easy distinction between the two. No published name was available for this species. In collections, specimens are frequently found in mixed lots with A.

    One of the 19 shells on which BAYER based his discussion of A. F; Figs. II, 7: 17, pl. XIV [lectotype designation]. Arabia: 34, text-fig. Type locality: not given; LAMARCK : "Habite Etymology: laevigatus-a-um [adjective]; 19th century variant spelling of the Latin levigatus-a-um; smooth, slippery.

    Material studied: specimens AMNH, ANSP, BMNH, CAS, DMNH, FMNH, HUJ, IRSNB, LACM, LMA, MCZ, MNHNP, NMP, NMW, RNHL, SMF, SMNS, UCMP, UMZC, USNM, ZIMH, ZMA, ZSM, Coll.

    ALF , and photograph of lectotype of S. E J z 1. Subsutural rib whitish with irregular brown blotches, midrib-area purplish or bluish-grey with diffuse pattern of small brown blotches, basal field with up to four dotted spiral lines, proxumbical rib pale greyish-brown often with brown blotches ; umbilical crenae forming lightest colored area of shell base, often white.

    Shape: cone-shaped, with whorls inflated especially on upper side ; umbilicus moderately wide UD ca. Sculpture: Upper side: SSR distinctly separated; UMR and LMR of about equal strength; shallow depression at base of LMR; Periphery: PR strong, with UPR almost as prominent as LPR; upper point of whorl attachment on upper part of LPR upper edge of LPR visible in suture of early whorls ; upper side and periphery crossed by deeply incised oblique axial grooves, resulting in a general gemmate appearance on early whorls, becoming smooth on later whorls of larger specimens; Base: IPR moderately strong; BF without spiral ribs; with weak radiating plications especially in younger speci- mens , stronger towards umbilicus; two distinctly separated nodulose spiral ribs PUR and UC surrounding umbilicus, with UC strong; columellar wall forming almost straight inner lip with plications for support of the columellar muscle, with deepest groove in UC overhanging umbilicus; no spiral sculpture on umbilical side of wall.

    F : SSR initially white, after about 1 Tw with pattern of irregular brown blotches; MR purplish or bluish-grey with diffuse pattern of small brown blotches usually not corresponding with pattern of SSR and PR ; UPR, LPR and IPR whitish with irregular pattern of brown blotches; BF light bluish-brown with up to four dotted spiral lines of various widths; PUR pale grayish-brown, often with brown blotches; UC forming lightest colored area of base, often white.

    Arcliitectonica laevigata LAMA RCK, Habitat: Upper sublittoral most depth records between 2 and 30 m , with live records from sandy substrates in shallow water.

    The only other similar Recent forms are A. Architectonica karsteni RUTSCH, 19 34 Figs. Chile, , figs. Measurements of figured specimen LACM Type locality: ccPunta Gavilan Lok.

    Etymology: karsteni [genitive singular case-ending]. Named after the German geologist HERMANN GUSTAV KARL WILHELM KARSTEN Material studied: specimens, of which were Recent material AMNH, ANSP, CAS, FMNH, LACM, NMB, PRI, UCMP, USNM ; including fossil holotype NMB H Diagnosis: Medium-sized to large, fairly high-spired cone-shaped shell with moderately wide umbilicus; whorls on upper side gemmate and inflated on both sides; two spiral grooves below suture midrib-area divided equally ; basal field often with weakly developed spiral grooves; proxumbical rib never clearly separated in larger specimens.

    Subsutural rib whitish with irregular brown blotches; midribs light-brown or bluish- grey and mottled with brown; basal field with dotted lines; umbilical crenae whitish with brown pattern darkest area of base.

    Arcliitectonica karste11i R1rrsc11, ; Recent specimen from Isla Angel de la Guardia, Baja California, Mexico, m; LACM Shape: fa irly high-spired cone-shaped , with whorls inflated; umbilicus moderately wide UD ca.

    Geographical distribution Recent specimens only; Fig. Habitat: Sublittoral depth records between 18 and m , most live records from below 50 m; muddy, sandy and rocky substrates.

    Discussion: Architectonica karsteni differs from all other species in this genus by not having a distinctly separated proxumbical rib on the body whorl of the teleoconch, the umbilical crenae forming the only obvious spiral rib around the umbilicus.

    The single sympatric congener, A. Architectonica karsteni was only known as a Neogene fossil, reported from a number of localities in the western Atlantic Ocean and eastern Pacific e.

    Architectonica nobilis RODING, Figs. Boltenianum: SULPHUR, J: 50; 2: pl. ADAMS, Ann. New York, 5: London, B, MoRcH, Malakozool. SMITH, Proc.

    Meded, Gulf Calif. Architectonica nobilis, - KEEN, b, Occas. Noire, A JI l : , fig. Union, Type measurements: Lectotype of A.

    Lectotype of A. Presumed original specimen of A. Type localities: A. Arclii1eclo1tica 11obilis R NG, H e1ena ". Etymology: nobiLis-e [adjecti ve]; Latin: noble, famous.

    ALr, Coll. Original material of S. Diagnosis Large, moderately depressed to fairly high-spired cone-shaped shell with moderately wide umbilicus; whorls on upper side gemmate, somewhat inflated with nodules in midrib-area scaly and tilted ; two spiral grooves below suture midrib-area divided equally into two narrow spiral ribs ; wide groove at base of the lower midrib; basal field with nodulose ribs in front of well-separated proxumbical rib.

    Subsutural rib light-brown with dark-brown blotches; midrib-area and basal field bluish-brown with irregular brown markings often with dotted spiral bands on, or in place of, basal field ribs ; proxumbical rib and umbilical crenae light brown with darker blotches.

    Coloration: SSR, UPR, LPR, IPR and BF-ribs with dark-brown blotches largest blotches on SSR; lightest coloration on LPR ; MR and remaining BF bluish-brown with faint irregular brown markings, often with dotted spiral bands, on or in place of, BF-ribs; PUR and UC light brown with darker blotches.

    Reproduction and larval development: reported by BANDEL , fig. The spawn consists of up to 50 cm long and mm thick, gelatinous massive tubes, round in cross section.

    These are looped in such a way that every 5 to 10 cm of tube they are connected with a gelatinous anchor extending into the substrate.

    Thus, a spawn mass in place looks like a number of independent loops, even though it actually consists only of one long, soft, continuous tube.

    Within the tube the capsules are arranged in irregular spiral lines. Each of the shiny, spherical, durable capsules contains one greenish egg or embryo and is connected to the next by a string.

    One millimeter of egg tube contains about capsules. Therefore, an average 10 cm long spawn tube of one female contains about 30, embryos.

    After 5 to 8 days of development the spawn dissolves and liberates small veligers. Habitat: Usually in shallow water on sandy substrates often in seagrass beds , but occurs in lower sublittoral and upper bathyal on sandy and muddy substrates most depth records in the eastern Pacific between 1 and m, in the Atlantic between 1 and m.

    Only rarely may individuals of this species be seen searching for food during daylight, but at dawn or at night most animals become active.

    They leave their resting place in the sand and crawl over the substrate on a broad sole, the apex now pointing in the normal upward position. Their prey consists of all kinds of soft bodied actinian-type coelenterates which usually are present in large numbers on the blades of seagrass and on rock-surfaces.

    Large prey individuals are attacked by the gastropod close to the base. Here [the gastropod] rasps a hole and extends its proboscis into the coelenterate, feeding on it until it dies up to a few days.

    Geographical distribution of Architectonica nobilis and A. Atlantic records for A. Discussion: Architectonica nobilis shells can easily be recognized by their narrow, scaly midribs, the narrow umbilicus with coarse, irregular umbilical crenae, and, especially, by their additional spiral ribs on the shell base.

    Two Recent species are similar in some features of color pattern and sculpture, A. The synonymy of Architectonica nobilis has been a matter of extensive discussion in the literature e.

    No significant difference in proto- or teleoconch characters has been found that would justify a separation between Atlantic and Pacific populations even at the subspecific level, the difference between Atlantic populations being greater than between West Atlantic and East Pacific populations BIELER, unpubl.

    Some of the fossil forms that have been treated as "A. RODING 78 referred in his description of Architectonica nobilis to figures in CHEMNITZ pl.

    MERRILL a: selected a specimen of this collection as a lectotype. This lectotype designation is here repeated, since MERRILL'S work is not published and therefore not available for taxonomic purposes.

    The reference to "the type specimen of A. Solarium granulatum LAMARCK, , is a synonym of A. This specimen is here selected as a lectotype.

    The specimen was never figured, the type material is considered lost MNHNP. Other authors e. The latter approach is followed here, since most statements of the original description and the given dimensions fit juvenile specimens of A.

    For the reasons leading to the synonymy of Solarium quadriceps HINDS, , with Architectonica nobilis, see discussion under A.

    MORCH based the description of Architectonica valenciennesii on "6 specimina" 6 syntypes, ZMK unnumbered, vidi. KEEN illustrated two of the syntypes b: 22, figs.

    The left specimen in KEEN's illustration shell diameter: It is here selected as lectotype. The presumed original specimen of Architectonica wroblewskyi var.

    B an aberrant specimen with a repaired shell ZMK unnumbered, vidi. The holotype of Solarium ordinarium E. SMITH, , from St. Helena BMNH Architectonica consobrina n.

    Paratype 2 from Talajit Island, Paratype 3 from N. Etymology: consobrina [noun in apposition]; Latin: first female cousin; implying close relationship with other species of the Architectonica maxima-group.

    Material studied: 4 type specimens as listed above. Diagnosis Large, moderately depressed cone-shaped shell with moderately wide umbilicus; whorls on upper side gemmate, inflated on both sides; two spiral grooves below suture midrib-area divided into two ribs, with the lower midrib becoming narrower after whorls ; wide groove at base of lower midrib; basal field divided into nodulose ribs; proxumbical rib strong and wider than basal-field ribs.

    Subsutural rib yellowish or whitish with brown blotches; midrib-area greyish to olive-brown, with pattern of brown blotches on lower midrib; proxumbical rib and umbilical crenae yellowish, without color pattern; umbilical crenae darker than basal field.

    Description: Teleoconch: Large, diameter of known specimens ca. Shape: moderately depressed cone-shaped, with whorls equally inflated on upper side and base; umbilicus moderately wide UD ca.

    Coloration: SSR, UPR, LPR and IPR yellowish to whitish LPR lightest colored with brown blotches, each of which ca. Architecto11ica co11sobri11a n. Habitat: Upper bathyal; availab le depth records fres h, empty shells from between m, on sand and coral substrates.

    Discussion: The only other Recent Architecton. The sculpture of A. Architectonica con. Arcl1itectonica regia HANLEY, [INCERTAE SEDISJ Fig.

    ER, d, Verh. H amburg, NF , pl. Etymology: regius-a-itm [adjective]; Latin: royal. Material studied: Holotype BMNH 11 Discussion : The single known specimen of this form shows many signs of an aberrant shell, such as unusual inflation of the shell base and poor definition of spiral sculpture and color pattern.

    Although certainly a member of the Architectonica maxima-group, it cannot be positively assigned to any of the recognized species. Genus Adelphotectonica BIELER, Adelphotectonica BI ELER, ; introduced as subgenus of Architectonica.

    Type species by original designation: Solarium reevei H ANLEY, ; Recent, Indo-Pacific. Schematic representation of placement of major spiral ribs in SSR Adelphotectonica, apertural aspect.

    Protoconch: medium-sized to very large ca. Radula: ptenoglossate-like; rachidian with 3 cusps, flanked by 7 marginals on either side; marginals with 2 long processes each.

    Operculum: horny, ear-shaped with broad last whorl, flat with peg-like projection on body side. For a more extensive description and discussion of this genus see BIELER Adelphotectonica reevei HANLEY, Fig.

    Wales, 3 : Wales, 51 Suppl. Tasmania: Okinoshima: 13, pl. Tokyo, 1 2 : Type measurements: Holotype of S. Holotype of A.

    Continental Shelf of New South Wales"; ssp. Etymology: reevei [genitive singular case-ending]. Named after LOVELL AUGUSTUS REEVE , British conchologist.

    Material studied: specimens AMNH, AMS, ANSP, BMNH, BPBM, CAS, DMNH, FMNH, HUJ, IRSNB, LACM, MCZ, MNHNP, NMNZ, NMW, RNHL, SMF, SMNS, USNM, ZMA, ZSM , including holotype of S.

    Diagnosis Medium-sized to large, depressed to high-spired cone-shaped shell with moderately wide umbilicus; whorls inflated, on upper side gemmate with axial sculpture domi- nant ; subsutural rib distinctly separated, midrib-area undivided or divided by faint spiral grooves; upper point of whorl attachment on lower part of lower peripheral rib; proxumbical rib absent to distinctly separated.

    Color pattern of distinct brown blotches on subsutural rib, upper peripheral rib and proxumbical-rib area also on umbilical crenae in some specimens.

    Adelpliotecto11ica reevei l-IAN l. EY, DALE, ; New South Wales, Australia; AMS C. Coloration: midrib-area and BF light brown, often marbled with slightly darker shades of brown; ground color of SSR, PR and UC distinctly lighter; SSR and UPR well-marked with pattern of brown blotches about on 4th Tw of UPR ; LPR, IPR, PUR-area rarely also UC with faint brown pattern.

    Rachidian stronger than marginals and triruspid with the central cusp flanked by smaller lateral cusps. Marginal teeth strongly auved and forked with long tapering subequal cusps; the outermost marginal teeth shorter.

    Record from Ceylon Sri Lanka in need of verification. Habitat: Sublittoral to upper bathyal most depth records between 30 and m , live records from m, sandy substrates.

    Distinguishing characters for A. Adelphotectonica kuroharai, A. HANLEY described Solarium reevei as an "elevated abnormal form," based on a single specimen see Fig.

    IREDALE doubted its Australian origin and described the nominal species Architectonica offiexa based on Australian material, and later , A.

    The type specimen has a wider umbilicus than most Australian specimens, but otherwise agrees with the nominate form. Narrowly umbilicated specimens from Japan are known e.

    Subspecific status for this form is here considered unjustified. Geographical distribution of Adelphotectonica reevei. BE, Figs. SrDOGA Exped.

    Okinoshima, Suppl: 1. Type measurements: Holotype of A. Etymology: kuroharai [genitive singular case-ending]. Named after Mr. KUROHARA, who collected the type specimen.

    Material studied: 19 specimens AMNH, ANSP, BPBM, FLMNH, LACM, MNHNP, NSMT, USNM, ZMA, Coll. AzuMA ; including holotypes of A.

    Color pattern of distinct brown blotches on lower peripheral rib. Shape: depressed cone-shaped, with somewhat inflated whorls; large specimens similar in shape to Discotectonica spp.

    Coloration: SSR, MR and UPR marbled with shades of light-brown; LPR and entire base lighter colored ; LPR well-marked w ith pattern of brown blotches about on 4th Tw; in some specimens also UPR wi th faint pattern.

    Geographical distribution of Adelphotectonica kuroharai and A. Habitat: Sublittoral to upper bathyal depth records between and m , live records from m.

    Discussion: The identity of Adelphotectonica kuroharai has been the subject of confusing statements in the literature. For specimens from the same island, AZUMA introduced the nominal species Architectonica pentacyclota see Fig.

    Before the description of A. GARRARD , pl. Two specimens from 'S1BOGA' station 95 ZMA unnumbered, vidi , listed by ScHEPMAN as "Solarium sp.

    Adelphotectonica reevei, A. Natal Mus. Tokyo, 1 2 : 33, pl. E at the depth of m. Ko10 NoMOTO, w ho ass isted the original autho r in obtaining the mate rial.

    Ma terial stud ied : 27 specimens IMT, MNH NP, NMNZ, NMP , SAM ; incl udi ng holotype IMT 1. Color pattern o f distinct brown blotches on upper and lower periphe ra l ribs in d arke r-colored specimens also in area next to umbil ical crenae.

    P rotoco nch diamete r 1. Shape: depressed cone-shaped, w ith w ho rls somewhat inflated ; umbilicus wide UD ca.

    Coloration: MR-area light-brown; SSR, PR and base lighter in color; SSR with faint, PR with distinct pattern of brown blotches about on 4th Tw; in darker-colored specimens also brown blotches on IPR and in area in front of UC.

    Habitat: Sublittoral to upper bathyal depth records between 74 and m , live records from m. Discussion: KosuGE 33 described this species, as Architectonica nomotoi, based on a single specimen from the Midway Islands.

    Comparison with the South African specimen SAM A referred to as "reevei" by ToMLIN , and BARNARD , , and with further material from that region NMP, SAM , revealed their specific identity.

    Adelphotectonica reevei has not been found in South Africa to date. The three Indo-Pacific forms of this subgenus, Adelphotectonica nomotoi, A.

    They cannot be interpreted as ecological or geographical forms, because all of them were present in a single sample New Caledonia; MNHNP unnumbered.

    The sub littoral morph of A. A comparison of teleoconch diameter versus number of whorls SD at 4 Tw revealed no significant statistical difference; all forms showed almost the same range of variation ca.

    Differences are found mainly in upper-side teleoconch sculpture, coloration and protoconch size see Tab. The three forms are here provisionally accepted as species; further material, and a study of anatomy and radulae, are necessary.

    An Atlantic "sibling" is Adelphotectonica uruguaya CARCELLES, see BIELER, , and Tab. GRAY, Philippia J.

    GRAY, ; introduced as subgenus of Trochus. Type species by monotypy: Solarium luteum LAMARCK, ; Recent, Indo-Pacific. Protoconch: small to medium-sized ca.

    Radula: five-toothed taenioglossate; rachidian with narrow central cusp flanked on either side by an equally strong, filiform cusp P.

    Operculum: horny, circular with broad last whorl, flat with mushroom-shaped, peg-like projection on body side; peg with grooves arranged in clock.

    For a more extensive description and discussion of this genus see BIELER a: Schematic representation of placement of major spiral ribs in Philippia, apertural aspect.

    UC Pbilippia lutea LAMARCK, Fig. LAMARcK: pl. II, 7: 9, 31, pl. NO'Vae Hollandiae? PHILIPPI, Syst. II, 7: 41, pl. SMITH, World-wide sea shells: 29, fig.

    Victoria: , fig. Original specimen of var. Etymology: luteus-a-um [adjective]; Latin: of mud or clay, yellow. Material studied: specimens AMNH, ANSP, BMNH, BPBM, CAS, DMNH, FLMNH, FMNH, HU], IRSNB, LACM, MHNG, MNHNP, NMNZ, NMP, NMW, OUM, RNHL, SMF, SMNS, UMZC, USNM, ZIMH, ZMA, ZSM ; and lectotype and 5 paralectotypes of S.

    The Donington Herd The Walmer Herd The Manor Herd. Welcome to our website The Lincoln Red is one of the oldest of the UK's Native Breeds of beef cattle and the Lincoln Red Cattle Society is a charitable organisation dedicated to the promotion of this magnificent breed.

    We're backing BVDFree England! Photo Gallery see full gallery. Breed Information About Breed History Cattle for Sale Suckler Advantage AI Bulls Available Breed Standards.

    Bartussek, Naturgemässe Viehwirtschaft. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart, p. Organic plant breeding and propagation: concepts and strategies.

    List of Dutch embryo transfer-free breeding bulls. Louis Bolk Institute, Driebergen. Doppenberg, An Inventory of Kin-breeding in the Netherlands.

    Louis Bolk Instituut, Driebergen, 17 p. Der Ökologische Gesamptzuchtwerd. Roep, D. Innovative work: tracks of capacity and incapacity. In Dutch Roughsedge, T.

    Visscher, Quantifying genetic contributions to a dairy cattle population using pedigree analysis. In Dutch Verhoog, H.

    Vollema, A. Selection for longevity in dairy cattle. Wittenberg, K. Gunther Postler, Hermansdorf, p. All rights reserved Chapter 3 Converting to organic dairy farming: consequences for production, somatic cell scores and calving interval of irst parity Holstein cows W.

    Baars1, H. Bovenhuis2 1 Louis Bolk Institute, Hoofdstraat 24, NL LA Driebergen, The Netherlands 2 Animal Breeding and Genetics Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands Published in Livestock Science 99 Thesis Wytze J.

    Data was collected for Dutch organic farms, with a distinction made between long-standing-organic farms, converted organic farms and a reference group of conventional farms.

    An animal model was used to estimate the effects of conversion on different traits based on data from converted organic farms.

    Milk production was lower and somatic cell counts were higher on long-standing-organic farms than on conventional and converted organic farms.

    Interestingly, at pre-organic farms, i. The estimates from our statistical analysis showed a highly signiicant decrease in milk yield and protein percentage due to conversion.

    Also fat content decreased, SCS increased and AFC increased signiicantly. It can be concluded that the conversion to organic farming is a gradual process over years.

    During conversion, signiicant changes in milk production, protein and fat contents and somatic cell scores took place.

    Age of irst calving is an important difference between organic and conventional farming. Key words: conversion, organic farming, milk production, calving interval, somatic cell score, age at irst calving 3.

    In order to plan a conversion to organic production, basic information about expected changes is required. Information that we do have is based on questionnaires Nauta et al.

    For our research we were able to use all the available production and fertility records from calvings from to at almost all organic dairy farms in the Netherlands, precluding the risk of selecting a speciic group of organic farms and giving us insight into the development of production and fertility over more than a decade.

    Differences between organic and conventional dairy farming can be expected due to restrictions on the use of chemical fertilizer and concentrates EU, Organic roughage is produced without chemical fertilizer and consequently has lower energy and protein compounds Padel, Organic farming regulations also restrict the use of concentrates and set a limit on the content of conventional ingredients in the concentrates EU, In practice, the latter restriction will act as a inancial restraint on the use of concentrates as well.

    On top of this, many organic farmers simply opt for a low input of concentrates from an organic point of view. With more organic roughage in the diet and a lower intake of energy and protein from concentrates, milk production is expected to decrease.

    It is also expected that cattle with high genetic potential for production will have particular dificulty coping with organic environments Kristensen and Peder- sen, ; Nauta et al, Our interest, therefore, is directed especially at Holstein cattle.

    The aim of this paper was to describe the changes prompted by conversion to organic farming, focusing on milk production traits, somatic cell score and calving interval of irst parity Holstein cows in those herds.

    Data were obtained from the Dutch Herd Book and milk recording organization NRS. The data on organic farms were identiied by using the addresses of all Dutch organic dairy farms in For the organic farms also their date of conversion was known.

    This information was obtained from Skal, the Dutch organic certiication organization for organic farming. In , organic dairy farms were registered with Skal.

    The NRS database contained production records of of these farms. Data from conventional farming was collected by a random selection of conventional farms.

    These farms were situated in the same areas as the organic farms. The data was edited in such way that it only contained records that would meet the cri- teria as described by the NRS NRS, e.

    We could select 46, irst lactation records from organic farms and , irst lactation records from conventional farms. All cows calved between January and April Figure 3.

    To describe the changes in breed composition per calving year of conventional, converted-to-organic and long-standing-organic farms between and we used The breed composition was calculated by adding the breed composition of each animal and dividing this by the total number of animals.

    This resulted in Records for CI between irst and second calving and SCS were added to these data. The average SCS per lactation were based on somatic cell counts from test day records.

    The average somatic cell count per lactation was estimated as the mean of all available test day somatic cell counts records. For SCS For CI we got The phenotypic trends were calculated as the averages per trait per calv- ing year from to This study was based on records from converted-to-organic farms only.

    In addition, only daughters of sires with at least 4 offspring were selected. Models We used ASREML Gilmour et al.

    An animal model was used to account for genetic relationships between animals. Pedigree information was traced back ive 2 generations and was included in the analyses.

    In the analyses of SCS, phenotypic observations were weighed according to the number of test day records that contributed to the mean.

    The increase of HF blood at organic and conventional farms occurred mainly Thesis Wytze J. In , the long-standing- organic and converted-to-organic farms still had both about 5.

    The long-standing- organic farms did have more DF blood 4. Half of the DF cattle on long-standing-organic farms were purebred DF. Between and , the contribution of other breeds on the recently converted-to-organic farms increased slightly: from 0.

    Most Jersey cows were pure bred. Phenotypic trends in production, somatic cell count, calving interval and age at irst calving of irst parity Holstein cows Figure 3.

    In the early nineties, when most converted-to-organic farms were still conventional, irst pa- rity Holstein cows at these farms produced about kg milk less than on the reference conventio- nal farms.

    On long-standing-organic farms, irst parity Holstein cows produced approximately kg less milk than their conventional counterparts.

    SE are shown in bars. Values at the y-axes are relative values. Compared to the conventional farms, long-standing-organic and converted-to-organic farms had a 0.

    The phenotypic trend of al groups followed a fairly steady pattern, decreasing from 4. The percentage protein in the milk produced on long-standing-organic and converted-to- organic farms was respectively 0.

    At converted-to-organic farms, protein percentage in milk declined after conversion and stabilized at the level of long-standing-organic farms.

    Based on phenotypic information, long-standing-organic farms had a higher mean soma- tic cell score SCS than conventional farms. Before conversion, the SCS on converted-to-organic farms was similar to that of conventional farms.

    After , the difference between converted-to- organic farms and conventional farms was 0. Between and , the calving inter- val CI increased by about 23 days for long-standing-organic and 16 days for converted-to-organic farms.

    For conventional farms the increase in CI was about 12 days. From onwards, Holstein cows on long-standing-organic farms had a higher age at irst calving AFC than on conventional or converted-to-organic farms.

    Between and , when most farms converted to organic, AFC at these converted-to-organic farms increased from 26 to 27 months while AFC of conventional farms stayed at 26 months.

    Effects of conversion on production, somatic cell score and fertility traits Figure 3. CI was not signiicantly inluenced by conversion.

    Conversion decreased milk production in irst lactations by about kg. This decline started some years before conversion. After conversion, it took 5 years before production showed no further decline.

    The biggest decline in production occurred in the period from one year before to two years after conversion, the decline being about kg.

    Before conversion to organic, we found that milk fat increased. In the irst two years after conversion the percentage of milk fat decreased with 0.

    After two years of conversion the percentage fat increased again. Before conversion, there had been a steady increase in protein level.

    From one year before to two years after conversion the protein level decreased 0. Three years after conversion, however, protein level increased again.

    After con- version, SCS increased by 0. Assuming a population mean of Apparently, SCS continued to rise still after 6 years of organic production.

    CI did not change due to conversion. AFC increased by 1. The total increase after conversion was 1. Discussion This paper describes the irst longitudinal study on breed composition, milk production, SCS and CI of organic dairy cattle.

    In this study we looked at the performance of Holstein dairy cattle which have a relatively high genetic potential for milk production as compared to other breeds.

    This might have resulted in the exclusion of certain speciic farming styles, as farming style is con- nected with the choice of breeds and choice for crossbreeding Groen et al.

    Farms with other breeds and cross-bred cows more dual-purpose might, for example, have a more extensive character, with a stronger accent on more robust animals and with meat production playing a role in farm income.

    The majority of Dutch organic farms, however, stock Holstein cattle, so that this study can be considered as representative for Dutch organic dairy farming in general.

    Changes preceding conversion Farms that convert to organic farming have a lower milk production level before conversion than conventional farms see Figure 3.

    This indicates that, on the whole, these farms represented a speciic stream of Dutch dairy farms and are different from the conven- tional mainstream.

    We also looked at the years preceding conversion and found that, some years before conversion changes in milk production, SCS and AFC take place to- wards organic farming, indicating that farmers already seemed to be anticipating, in their manage- ment methods, a move in the organic direction see Figure 3.

    Traditionally, problems with con- ventional farming, especially in the areas of animal health and soil fertility motivated farmers to convert to organic production Midmore et al.

    Midmore et al. While considering conversion to organic, farmers might already be making changes in certain aspects of farm management, for example less use of concentrated feed and antibiotics.

    Breed composition Conversion to organic in general did not seem to inluence breed preferences. Organic farmers contin- ued using Holstein bulls after conversion and the trends in production were similar to conventional trends.

    Previously it was found that young organic farmers used the same bulls as their conven- tional colleagues Nauta et al. If a serious genotype-environment interaction Falconer and Mackay, ; Nauta et al.

    But only a small group of farmers consciously chose breeds other than Holstein. The farmers were also not familiar with alternatives, in the sense of organic breeding and were very much used to selecting bulls from the conventional supply and the use of AI which they see as a very easy method Nauta et al.

    The focus was on other aspects, like grass growth and animal health Nauta et al. It is dificult to compare our results direct with other studies on milk production in organic farming.

    Firstly, our results were based on irst lactations of relative high yielding Holstein cows and high- yielding cows will respond more strongly to conversion than low-yielding cows Padel, Sec- ondly we must consider that our results were estimated effects of conversion which were estimated using a model that adjusted the data for several effects.

    Bennedsgaard et al. Based on data from 18 farms which converted in they found a decrease of kg ECM, but after 2 years the production level at these organic farms was already nearly the same as at the year before conversion.

    This was not the case in the present study. This might be due to a more farm based feed production including cereals in Denmark while in the Thesis Wytze J.

    The decline in milk production can be explained by the reduced input of concentrates and a lower roughage quality in terms of energy and protein content.

    Dutch farmers traditionally feed large quantities of concentrates and they have to drastically cut back their use of concentrates when converting to organic production.

    In a four-year study of ten organic Dutch farms, the aver- age annual concentrate consumption was found to be kg per cow, resulting in an average production of kg milk in days Plomp, The lower milk yield achieved by organic farmers might also partly be due to a lack of knowledge among newly converted organic farmers about feeding, grazing and housing high- yielding cows under organic conditions.

    Using estimates of model 1 we estimated that the 1. The increase of AFC is probably due to energy and protein shortages in their juvenile period resulting in slower growth Smolders, Organic farmers must deal with restrictions on the use of concentrates - which applies to the herd as a whole - and with greater variation in roughage quality harvested from grassland and nature reserve land.

    In the interests of milk yield, organic farmers tend to feed the best roughage plus the available supply of concentrates to their milking cows.

    As a result, young stock grows more slowly and are older when they reach the standard body weight for in- semination. Also parasitic infections can slow down the growth of the young animals Hovi et al.

    Composition of milk For the unadjusted data phenotypic trend we found that the trend for fat percentage on convert- ing-to-organic farms followed the trend on conventional farms which was in general decreasing Figure 3.

    The estimated effects of conversion based on our model showed a general increase of fat percentage Figure 3.

    This is probably due to the correction in the model for genetic effects genetic trend. The phenotypic trend of the protein level dropped to the level of long-standing- organic farms.

    For both the percentage fat and protein, we saw that the estimated effects of conversion, i. This decline was stronger for percentage protein than for fat percentage.

    Also from other studies it is known that percentage fat and protein in the milk are lower at organic farms as compared to conventional farms.

    However, Toledo et al. The fat percentage only decreased in the irst two years after conversion. This is probably due to the decrease in energy in the roughage and a lower amount of concentrate feeding in the irst years of conversion Padel, Overall we see an increase of percentage fat which is probably because of more roughage in the diet at organic farms Padel, The decrease of the percentage of milk protein under organic conditions is probably a consequence of a lower input of energy at organic farms and a lower supply of proteins in concentrates.

    Suitable proteins are either expensive or dificult to obtain due to contamination with GMO soybean, maize which for that reason are prohibited for organic farming EU, After years of organic farming the results show an increase of protein percentage in the milk.

    This might be due to a more balanced forage production and stocking rate after some years of organic farming Padel, SCS on organic farms The higher phenotypic trend of SCS on long-standing-organic farms see Figure 3.

    Restrictions on the use of antibiot- ics and the greater prevalence of deep litter stalls on organic farms are expected to increase SCS.

    Other studies, based on bulk tank scores or herd averages, also showed higher SCS for organic farming Kristensen and Mogensen, ; Vaarst et al.

    Surprisingly, SCS did not stabilize after some years but increased even 6 years after con- version Figure 3.

    This suggests that, after conversion, the organic environment continues to change over several years. Jonkers noticed that organic farmers were not anxious about slightly raised SCS, as they assumed that this was normal in an organic environ- ment and relected better immune activity.

    The latter was recently described by Van Groenweghe However, Bennedsgaard et al. These farmers were actively trying out alternative methods to control mastitis and SCS, such as frequent milking by hand of clinical cases, drying a gland, or letting cows suckle calves Vaarst and Bennedsgaard, Calving interval The phenotypic trends for CI on converted organic farms showed a clear increase in time.

    An extended CI can be the result of a longer interval between calving and irst insemination due to different management decisions. CI was however not signiicantly affected by conversion Figure Thesis Wytze J.

    Hovi et al. General performance cooping with organic In general, based on this study, the performance of the Holstein Friesian cows during their irst lactation seems to be continued at a lower production level and an increased SCS and CI.

    However, the increased AFC indicates that farmers adjust their management by inseminating the heifers at a higher age so that the young animals reach a better body weight at the age of irst calving.

    In this way farmers help their animals to coop with the organic conditions resulting in a higher production. In this longitudinal study also the developments in organic farming; i.

    Especially during the last 3 calv- ing years used in this research, organic farmers were able to use more concentrates with conventional ingredients due to a change in the EU regulations for organic farming EU, However, from January onwards, organic farmers have to use complete organic feed stuff, including concentrates.

    This will probably result in a further decrease of the supply of concentrates and good performance of the Holstein cows will get more dependent of farmers skills and possibilities to help the animals to coop with this.

    Most organic farmers in the Netherlands kept on using Holstein cattle after conversion. During the conversion process, there were highly signiicant changes in milk production and protein percentages in the milk.

    Also fat contents and somatic cell counts in the milk changed signiicantly over the conversion period. Age at irst calving at organic farms clearly differs between organic and conventional farming, indicating that farmers with Holstein cattle adjust there man- agement to organic conditions.

    De biologische melkveehouderijsector in kaart gebracht. Productschap Zuivel, Rijswijk. EU, Addison Wesley Longman, Harlow. Gilmour, A. Thompson, ASREML Reference Manual.

    NSW Agriculture Biometric Bulletin No. NSW Agriculture, Orange, NSW , Australia. Haas, E. Swiss organic dairy farmer survey: Which path for the organic cow in the future?

    In: Hovi, M. Organic livestock farming: Potentials and limitations of husbandry practice to secure animal health and welfare and food quality.

    Of the 2nd SAFO Workshop, March , Witzenhausen, University of Reading, Reading, Jonkers, L. Grenzen verleggen. Tussentijds verslag van twintig verkennende bedrijfsbezoeken bij biologische melkveehouders over het celgetal en de betekenis van dit begrip.

    Struck Pedersen, Organic dairy cow feeding with emphasis on Danish Conditions. Breeding and feeding for animal health and welfare in organic livestock systems.

    Proceedings of the 4th NAHWOA workshop, March, Wageningen, University of Reading, Reading, Milchwissenschaft, 46 3 , Animal Breeding in Organic Farming.

    Discussion paper. Louis Bolk Institute, Driebergen, www. Nauta W. Breeding strategies for organic dairy cattle; genotype by environment interaction, in Proceedings of 14th Organic World Congress IFOAM, Victoria, Canada, abstract, p.

    NRS, Handboek NRS Handbook NRS. Chapter E Fokwaardeschatting melkproductie- kenmerken. Koninklijk Nederlands Rundvee Syndicaat, Arnhem.

    In Öhlmer, B. Report no. Plomp, M. Feeding of dairy cattle on organic farms in the Netherlands. Proceedings of the 4th NAHWOA workshop, March, Wageningen, Smolders, G.

    Growth and development of young stock on organic dairy farms. Handbook for udder health for organic farming.

    Svensson, C. Parasite control methods in organic and conventional dairy herds in Sweden. Toledo, p. Composition of raw milk from sustainable production systems.

    Dairy J. Reduced medication in organic farming with emphasis on organic dairy production. Supplementum 95, VanGroenewege, F. University of Gent, Department of Fysiology, biochemestry and Biometry, Merelbeke.

    Verhoog H. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 16, Zastawny, J. Comparison of cattle production on organic and conventional farms in Poland.

    Of the 2nd SAFO Workshop, March , Witzenhausen, Germany, Nauta1, R. Veerkamp 2 , E. Brascamp,3 H. Bovenhuis4 1 Louis Bolk Institute, Department of Animal Husbandry, Hoofdstraat 24, LA Driebergen, The Netherlands.

    Box 65, AB Lelystad, The Netherlands. Box , BH Wageningen, The Netherlands. Box , AH Wageningen , The Netherlands. Published in Journal of Dairy Science 89 Thesis Wytze J.

    However, organic farming is growing worldwide and basic information about genetic parameters is needed for future breeding strategies for organic dairy farming.

    The goal of this study was to estimate heritabilities of milk production traits under organic farming conditions and to estimate the magnitude of G x E between organic and conven- tional dairy farming.

    For this purpose, production records of irst parity Holstein heifers were used. Heritabilities of milk, fat and protein yield, and somatic cell score SCS were higher under organic farming conditions.

    For percentages of fat and protein, heritabilities of organic and conventional production were very similar. Genetic correlations between pre-organic and organic, and organic and conventional milk production were 0.

    For fat yield, these correlations were 0. Our indings in- dicate that moderate G x E was present for yield traits. For percentage of fat and protein and SCS, genetic correlations between organic and conventional and pre-organic production were close to unity, indicating that there was no G x E for these traits.

    Key words: genotype by environment interaction, organic dairy production, somatic cell score 4. In the Netherlands, or- ganic dairy farming grew rapidly in the late s.

    Farmers who converted to organic production had to undergo some major changes in their farm management. Consequently, cows in organic farming have a lower intake of energy and protein and antibiotics are only administered in case of severe infections.

    The change in feed has the greatest effect on high-producing cows Padel, , usually Holsteins. Most organic dairy farmers in the Netherlands milk Holstein cows Nauta et al.

    Signiicant changes in milk production have been observed at these farms and SCS have increased signiicantly since conversion Nauta et al.

    In this organic environment, dairy farmers have continued to use the same breeding bulls supplied by AI companies as their conventional colleagues Nauta et al.

    European Union Thesis Wytze J. However, Dutch farmers mainly use Holstein cattle, which have a high genetic potential for production.

    Increasingly, questions are being raised by farmers and researchers about the use of highly productive animals under organic conditions. There are indications that such animals cannot cope with the organic environment Hardarson, ; Nauta et al.

    At this time, it is not clear whether organic dairy production requires speciic selective breeding programs distinct from programs for conventional production.

    An important parameter to consider is the magnitude of genotype by environment interaction G x E , which occurs when different genotypes react differently to different environments Falconer, At present, no information is available on the magnitude of a possible G x E between or- ganic and conventional production.

    A useful way to quantify G x E is the genetic correlation between traits as expressed in 2 environments Falconer, Environmental changes can also cause changes in phenotypic and genotypic variances of traits and differences in heritability may occur Brotherstone and Hill, There is no information available about these parameters for organic dairy production.

    The aim of this study was to estimate the heritabilities of different milk production traits including SCS for organic dairy farming and to quantify the magnitude of G x E between organic and conventional dairy production.

    The data was from calvings between January and March The data were selected as described by Nauta et al.

    In brief, only records of cows that calved between 17 and 36 mo of age were included in the analysis. Days open were days between calving and last insemination and only records of cows with days open between 30 and d were included.

    Records of cows that switched during the lactation from one farm to another were excluded from the analysis. Only d records predicted based on more than d in lactation were used.

    The data set consisted of organic farms; i. Conventional farms were randomly selec- ted from all conventional farms located in the same postal areas as the organic farms.

    Lactation records before conversion were also available from the organic farms. Based on the date of conver- sion of each organic farm, the data from organic farms were divided into 3 environmental groups: 1 Pre-organic: data from lactations belonging to calving dates from at least 9 mo before the date of conversion.

    V IV VI Pre organic Converting-to- Organic 4, organic 2, 1, I II III Conventional 9, Calving Year Figure 4. The lower part of the igure represents the data from conventional farms between January and March The dotted sigmoid curve relects the dates of conversion to organic of the farms.

    Number of records per environmental group is shown in parenthesis. Deinition of groups was based on the indings that the milk production level started to decline about 1 yr before conversion and stabilized 2 yr after conversion to organic farming Nauta et al.

    After initial edits, 21, irst-lactation records from organic farms were available with 11, records from the pre-organic period, 5, records from the converting-to-organic period, and 4, records from the organic period.

    The conventional data set consisted of 21, irst-lactation records. Additional restrictions were that herd-year-season HYS classes should have at least 4 observations and each sire should have at least 4 daughters in the complete data set; that is, the combined organic and conventional data sets.

    An overview of the data is given in Figure 4. The average SCS per lactation were based on SCC from test-day records. Only SCS were used of lactations with at least 5 and no more than 12 test days.

    The average SCS per lactation was estimated as the mean of the test-day SCS per lactation. Not all cows with milk production records had records for SCS.

    Records with an SCS were also edited to get at least 4 records per HYS class and per sire. After the edits, pedigree information was traced back 5 generations and was included in the analysis.

    Genetic connectedness between the different environmental groups is illustrated in Table 4. Heritabilities of milk production traits for each deined group and correlations between the different groups for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat and protein percentages, and SCS were analyzed using ASREML Gilmour et al.

    The 4 groups were analyzed simultaneously in a multivariate analysis; that is, a trait recorded on animals in each of the groups was considered as a different trait.

    The organic group data com- prised farms that converted to organic farming between and The residual terms were assumed to be normally and independently distributed with mean zero.

    In the multivariate analysis, 6 different genetic correlations were estimated simultaneous- ly. This is schematically illustrated in Figure 4.

    Preliminary, bivariate analyses were performed for every combination of environmental groups results not shown.

    Bivariate analysis that resulted in estimated correlations close to unity were ixed in the multivariate analysis at a value of 0.

    To test the signiicance of G x E between conventional and organic farming conditions, the likelihood ratio test was used.

    Genotype by environment interaction is relected by the genetic cor- relations between pre-organic and organic and between conventional and organic.

    Therefore, the log likelihood of a full model was compared to the log likelihood of a model in which the genetic correlations between conventional and organic and between pre-organic and organic were ixed at unity.

    Table 4. The total number of bulls in all groups was Conventional Pre-organic Converting-to- Organic organic Conventional Pre-organic 91 Converting-to-organic Organic 4.

    The standard deviation for milk yield tended to be slightly lower under organic farming conditions compared with conventional farming.

    However, the coeficient of variation was slightly higher for organic farms than for conventional farms Compared with conventional production, fat and protein yields per irst lactation in organic farming were 36 and 23 kg lower, respectively.

    The coeficient of variation of both traits was higher in organic farming compared with conventional farming Their coeficients of variation were very similar.

    A total of 5, production records of conventional farms and 4, production records of organic farms had a record of SCS. The SCS in organic production was 0.

    Similar differences were found for fat and protein yields. The heritability of milk yield was 0. The heritabilities of fat and protein yield in conventional farming were 0.

    For fat and protein percentages, the phenotypic variances of conventional and organic farming were very similar.

    In conventional farming, the heritabilities were 0. For SCS, the phenotypic variances for all environmental groups were between 0.

    The heritability of SCS was 0. The bivariate analyses for milk and protein yield showed that the genetic correlations between conventional and pre-organic production were equal to 1.

    In the multivariate analysis, therefore, the correlations were ixed at a value of 0. The bivari- ate analyses for fat yield showed that the genetic correlation between converting-to-organic and organic was equal to 1.

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